The artificial production of chemical substances already was a central goal for medieval alchemists. Examples include the synthesis of ammonium chloride from organic substances as described in the works (c. 850–950) attributed to Jābir ibn Ḥayyān, or the production of mineral acids such as sulfuric and nitric acids by later alchemists, starting from c. 1300. The production of mineral acids involved the heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as copper sulfate, alum and saltpeter. In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium chloride. With the development of the lead chamber process in 1746 and the Leblanc process, allowing large-scale production of sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate, respectively, chemical reactions became implemented into the industry. Further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the 1880s, and the Haber process was developed in 1909–1910 for ammonia synthesis.